The Great Salvation




READER, we earnestly appeal to you. We have an important subject to talk to you about – not about making money, either for you or for me, but about a matter of much greater importance, that which every man needs – about what people call religion. You perhaps will answer, "Away with it; look at the confusion there is in the religions of the world. What is the use for me to trouble myself when wise men cannot agree?" That is just the reason I want to talk with you just now – to show you that the wisdom of the wise is foolishness with God; and that the religion of the Bible is not found in the "wisdom" of theological schools, but is revealed, so that plain, homespun people may understand it and be saved by it – in fact I want to show you – don't get angry – that for to learn the religion of the Bible is to discard the popular religion of Christendom. Now, "come and let us reason together".

Perhaps you will have done like many others – concluded that it does not make any difference what our religious belief is if we are honest and sincere; but it is the hopelessness of reconciling the many religious creeds with themselves, and nearly all of them with the Bible that has driven many to say, "Well, it makes no difference." But your common sense will tell you that it does make a difference whether you believe the truth or believe a falsehood, whether you believe God or not' and the religious world, by it's actions, shows that it makes a difference what is believed, for they send missionaries to change the belief of the heathen, and also to the Jews to change their belief, so that they may believe that Jesus is the Christ.

If it makes a difference what we believe, then we can see why the Bible has been given – to guide us into the Truth; and the Bible itself says that our salvation depends upon our belief of the gospel as revealed in it's pages.

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I Thes. 5:21 Prove all things; hold fast that which is good.

Jude 3 Beloved, when I gave all diligence to write unto you of the common salvation, it was needful for me to write unto you, and exhort you that ye should earnestly contend for the faith which was once delivered unto the saints.

Rom. 1:16 For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation TO EVERYONE THAT BELIEVETH ...

Mark 16:16 He that believeth (the gospel) and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not shall be damned.

Now, reader, do not run away with the delusion that one man can believe one gospel and another can believe another gospel; for –

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That is, the gospel our Saviour commanded to be preached; the gospel – not a gospel; not any gospel you please, but the gospel is the power of God unto salvation. And think of this:

Gal 1:6 "I marvel that ye are so soon removed from him that called you into the grace of Christ unto another gospel; which is not another; but there be some that trouble you and would pervert the gospel of Christ. But though we or an angel from heaven preach any other gospel unto you THAN THAT WE HAVE PREACHED UNTO YOU, LET HIM BE ACCURSED."

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"Now he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and that he is a rewarder of them that diligently seek him" (Heb. 11:6); and it is life eternal to know Thee the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom he has sent (John 17:3); and therefore it will not do to believe in any other God or in any other Christ, for that would be idolatry.


Is what the religious world believes in, which is the same as to believe in a trinity of Gods, which, further is the same as to believe in three Gods; for they say that each is co-equal and co-eternal, and how can there be three co-equals and co-eternals unless there are three Gods? Reason, reader, you have a right to. God has invited you to reason, and it is only a false way out of a difficulty to say "it is irreverent to pry into these matters."

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Deut. 6:4; Mark 12:29 Hear O Israel, the LORD our God is one LORD.

I Cor. 8:6 But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things.

Eph. 4:6 One God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all.

John 17:3 And this is life eternal, that they might know thee the only true God ...

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Luke 1:35 The Holy Spirit shall come upon thee, and the power o/the Highest shall overshadow thee; therefore also that holy thing that shall be born of thee shall be called THE SON of GOD.

Matt. 3:17 This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased

John 3:35 The Father loveth the Son,, and hath given all things into his hand.


Acts 2:22 Jesus of Nazareth, a man approved of God among you by miracles.

I Tim. 2:5 One mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus.

Gal 4:4 God sent forth his Son, made of a woman.

I Cor. 15:21 By man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead.

Rom. 5:15 The gift by grace, which is by one man, Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many.

Jesus was not God, very God, as the creed of the religious world claims; for He Himself disavows any such claim. How could God be tempted like as we are? How could God die and be buried? Do not allow yourself to be deceived by the sophistry that it was His humanity that was tempted died and was buried, as if He Himself was not; for that would be admitting that He escaped temptation and death and that the "Christ" of popular religion did not die – could not die, being immortal; that only His body – not He – died. The Bible says Christ died, Christ was buried, etc.; and what is the use of perverting such language to suit a religion that is far astray from the Bible? Instead of Christ's being "co-equal and co-eternal with God," "God very God," He


Heb. 2:17; 4:15 In all things it behoved him to be made like unto his brethren. * * * He was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin.

John 5:30 I can of mine own self do nothing.

John 14:28 I go unto the Father, for my Father is greater than I

Heb. 5:7,8 He was heard in that he feared; though he were a son, yet learned he obedience by the things which he suffered.

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The Holy Spirit is not a third part of a Triune God, but God's power, effluence and influence. It is said that "God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power." Now, reader, we appeal to your common sense. If each – God, Christ and the Holy Spirit – were "God very God, co-equal and co-eternal, how could the first be said to anoint the second with the third in order to impart "power" from the first to the second through the third? If they were co-equal, the imparting of power from one to another would destroy the "co-equality". If they were co-equal what "power" would one have to impart to. another that the other was not already in possession of? Will your common sense allow you to believe that one of three co-equals anointed a second co-equal with a third co-equal? Can you think for a moment that one person anointed a second person with a third person? Note the following testimonies:

Psa. 104:30 Thou sendest forth thy Spirit, they are created.

Job 33:4 The Spirit Of God hath made me, and the breath of the Almighty hath given me life.

Luke 1:35 The Holy Spirit shall come upon thee, and the power of the Highest shall overshadow thee: therefore that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God.

Acts 10:38 God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power ...

There is, therefore, only one God and Father of all; and Jesus Christ is the Son of God, having been begotten of God through the Holy Spirit. God was the one who begat; the Holy Spirit was the power or influence emanating from Him under the direction of His will in the begettal; and Christ was the Son of God begotten, who, alter growing in wisdom and stature, was made perfect by the things which he suffered (Heb. 2:10).

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Now, dear reader, I want to appeal to you upon another subject. You know that it is the belief of the religious world that man is an immortal soul, and that when death takes place the real man does not die – he simply forsakes his body and continues to live without a body. If he has been a good man, he goes to heaven to live in happiness; if he has been a bad man, he goes to hell (supposed to be a place of torment) to live in misery. Now, just think for a moment. The Bible says there is to be a day of judgment.

Eccl. 3:17 I said in mine heart, God shall judge the righteous and the wicked; for there is a time there for every purpose and for every work.

II Cor. 5:10 For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, that everyone may receive the things in body, according to that he hath done, whether good or bad.

This judgment, you must know, is not at death, but at the second coming of Christ:

II Tim. 4:1 I charge thee therefore before God and the. Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the quick and the dead at his appearing and his kingdom.

Matt. 25:31 When the Son Of man shall come in his glory, and all his holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory; and before him shall be gathered all nations; and he shall separate them one from another as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats.

Here is proof that the judgment of good and bad is to take place when Christ comes back to the earth. So it follows they have not yet been judged. Now, then, to return to the point. If it be true that the good go to happiness when they die (and have to die to get there)! and the bad go to misery when they die, what is the judgment for? I appeal, reader, to your reason. Can you believe that God will reward and punish good and bad men for thousands of years and then call them to judgment? You will possibly say, "O well, God knows where to put them when they die as well as He will at the judgment day." Granted; but if it is a question of His knowledge, why has he provided a day of judgment at a set time? Do you not think there is something wrong with a theory that represents God as arranging in His plan for a day of judgment in which He will reward every man according as His work shall he (Rev. 22:12), and yet rewarding some for hundreds of years before that day of judgment arrives?

Now the Bible will help us out of this difficulty, and the first step is to believe that man is mortal, a creature of the dust.

I Cor. 15:47 The first man is of the earth, earthy.

Gen. 2:7 And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground.

Gen. 3:19 For out of it (dust) wast thou taken; for dust thou art and unto dust shalt thou return.

Job 33:6 I also am formed out of clay

Gen. 3:23 Therefore the LORD God sent him (Adam) forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground, from whence he was taken.

Gen. 18:27 And Abraham answered and said, Behold now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord which am but dust and ashes.

Job 4:17 Shall mortal man be more just than God? Shall a man be more pure than his maker?

Job 10:9 Remember, I beseech thee, that thou has made me as the clay; and wilt thou bring me into dust again?

Psa. 103:14 For he knoweth our frame; he remembereth that we are dust.

Now do not forget that all this is said of man – not of the house that man is supposed to dwell in for a time, as if man were one thing and his body another. It was the man that was formed out of the dust.

It is the man that is of the earth, earthy. It is the man that is formed out of clay. It is the man that is dust and ashes. Now the second step out of the difficulty presented is to believe that

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Job 30:13 For I know that thou bring me to death, and to the house appointed for all living.

Job 7:1 Is there not an appointed time to man upon earth? are not his days also like the days of an hireling?

Psa. 89:48 What man is he that liveth and shall not see death? Shall he deliver his soul (himself) from the hand of the grave?

Eccl. 3:19,20 For that which befalleth the sons of men befalleth beasts; even one thing befalleth them. as the one dieth so dieth the other; * * * all go to one place; all are of the dust and all turn to dust again.

Isa. 40:6 All flesh is grass, and all the goodliness thereof is as the flower of the field; the grass withereth, the flower fadeth; because the Spirit of the LORD bloweth upon it; surely the people is grass.

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Eccl 9:10 Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy might; for there is no work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom in the grave whither thou goest.

Isa. 6:5 In death there is no remembrance of thee, in the grave who shall give thee thanks?

Eccl. 9:5 For the living know that they shall die; but the dead know not any thing.

Psa. 146:3,4 Put not your trust in princes, nor in the son of man, in whom there is no help; his breath goeth forth, he returneth to his earth; IN THAT VERY DAY HIS THOUGHTS PERISH.

Isa. 38.18,19 The grave cannot praise thee, death cannot celebrate thee: they that go down into the pit cannot hope for thy truth.

Now, you see, the Bible having taught us that, instead of death being a continuation of life somewhere off the earth, it is the cessation of life; and instead of men going to happiness or misery when they die, they go to the grave, we are helped out of the absurdity of believing that good and bad are rewarded and punished before they are judged. It is clear now that, instead of the faithful dead having gone to heaven to continue to live, these all died in the faith, not having received the promises (Heb. 11:13).

Now, dear reader, do not, like many, get angry and denounce this as "materialism", and say, "If a man in death is no better than the beasts – is as dead as the beasts are – there can be no future life;" for that is just what some in Corinth said; and Paul said they were fools for doing so.

Paul argued with the Corinthians that the dead were dead, and proved that if there was no resurrection even those who had died in Christ had perished (I Cor. 15:18), gone for ever – an impossibility if they had gone to a heaven of happiness.

Now if there is to be a resurrection of the dead and a "gathering", of those who are alive at Christ's return to judge the quick and the dead, then our difficulty is gone, the wisdom of God shines brightly and the Bible is a book of consistency and beautiful harmony.

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Job 14:14 If a man die shall he live again?

Job 19:25,26 I know that my redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth, and though after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God.

Psa. 49:15 But God will redeem my soul from the power of the grave.

Isa. 26:19 Thy dead men shall live, together with my dead body shall their arise. Awake and sing) ye that dwell in dust.

Dan. 12:2 And many of them that deep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt.

Phil. 3:10,11 That I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, * * * if by any means I might attain unto the resurrection of the dead.

I Cor. 15:16,18 For if the dead rise not, then is not Christ raised; * * * then they also which are fallen asleep in Christ ARE PERISHED.

While it is clear from the testimonies given that man is mortal and absolutely destitute of immortality, and that in death he is dead and therefore unconscious, our hope of immortality must be through the resurrection, and immortality is therefore a matter of hope for the righteous only, and not an inherent possession of saint and sinner alike. Immortality is Gods nature. He is "The King eternal, immortal, invisible" (I Tim. 1:17), "who only hath immortality" (I Tim. 6:16). It is therefore a holy nature befitting righteous beings only; for God would surely not impart His own holy nature to wicked and depraved beings.

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II Pet. 1:4 Whereby are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises, that by these ye might be partakers of the DIVINE NATURE, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust.

I John 3:2 Beloved now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we shall be; but we know that when he shall appear, we shall be like him, for we shall see him as he is.

Phil. 3:20,21 For our conversation is in heaven; from whence also we look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned ONTO HIS GLORIOUS BODY.

Luke 20:35,36 But they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage; neither can they die any more; for they are equal unto the angels and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection.

Rom. 2:6,7 Who (God) will render to every man according to his deeds; to them who by patient continuance in well doing seek for glory and honor and immortality, eternal life.

I Cor. 15:51-54 Behold I show you a mystery; we shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump; for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed. For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality. So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on immortality, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory.

Now the word "immortality" is found only six times in the Bible, and never once is used as a prefix to the word soul in the oft-repeated form we hear from men – "immortal soul". First, it is said that God is immortal (I Tim, 1:17). Second, that God only hath immortality (I Tim. 6:16). Third, that Christ abolished death (in Himself), and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel (II Tim. 1:10). Fourth, that we must by well doing seek for immortality (Rom. 2:7). Fifth, that immortality will be put on at the resurrection. And, sixth, that when it is put on death will be swallowed up in victory (I Cor. 15:53-57).

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Job 14:1,2 Man that is born of a woman is of few days, and full of trouble. He cometh forth like a flower and is cut down: he fleeth also as a shadow, and continueth not.

Psa. 39:5 Behold thou has made my days as a handbreadth; and mine age is as nothing before thee: verily every man at his best state is altogether vanity.

Psa. 103:15 As for man, his days are as grass; as the flower of the field so he flourisheth.

Psa. 144:4 Man is like to vanity; his days are as a shadow that passeth away.

I Pet. 1:24 For all flesh is as grass, and all the glory of man as the flower Of grass. The grass withereth, and the flower thereof falleth away.

Jas. 4:14 For what is your life? It is even a vapor, that appeareth for a little time and then vanisheth away.

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I John 2:25 And this is the promise that he hath promised us, EVEN ETERNAL LIFE, through Jesus Christ.

II Tim. 1:1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ, by the will of God according to THE PROMISE OF LIFE which is in Christ Jesus.

Tit. 1:2 IN HOPE OF ETERNAL LIFE, which God that cannot lie promised before the world began.

Tit. 3:7 That being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to THE HOPE OF ETERNAL LIFE.

Rom. 2:6,7 Who will render to every man according to his deeds; to them who by patient continuance in well doing seek for glory, honor and immortality, eternal life.

Col. 3:3,4 For ye are dead, and your life is hid with Christ in God; and when Christ, who is our life, shall appear, THEN shall ye also appear with him in glory.

John 5:28,29 All that are in the graves shall hear his voice and shall come forth; they that have done good unto the resurrection of life.

Gal. 6:8 He that soweth to the spirit shall of the spirit reap life everlasting.

Luke 20:35,36 They which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage; neither can they die any more; for they are equal unto the angels; and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection.

A false theory forces many to attach an erroneous meaning to the phrase eternal life, making it stand for eternal happiness. While eternal happiness is the sequence of eternal life, the one must not be confounded with the other. Since the testimonies given prove that eternal life is the gift of God to the righteous only, it follows that those who obtain the precious gift will enjoy a happy state of being. If wicked men live for ever, they live everlastingly; and surely to live everlastingly is eternal life. The place where they live can make no difference as to the duration of life. If we ask those who are unreasonable enough to believe in the eternal conscious existence of all wicked and depraved men, Do you believe the wicked will be tormented eternally,? they will answer yes. Then do you not believe they will live eternally in torment? Yes. Then if they live eternally, will not that be eternal life in torment? The difference, therefore, between the righteous and the wicked is only one of place and state in which they live eternally – both having eternal life, the one in happiness and the other in misery. Compare this theory with the testimonies given above, and it will be seen that it is far astray from the Word of God, which teaches that "God so loved the world that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life." Everlasting life for those who believe. No everlasting life for those who do not believe; but they perish.

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Psa. 49:12,14,20 Man being in honor abideth not; he is like the beasts that perish. * * * like sheep they are laid in the grave; death shall feed on them, and the upright shall have dominion over them in the morning; and their beauty shall consume in the grave from their dwelling. * * * Man that is in honor, and understandeth not, is LIKE THE BEASTS THAT PERISH.

Isa. 26:13,14 O LORD our God, other lords beside thee have had dominion over us; but by thee only will we make mention of thy name. They are dead, THEY SHALL NOT LIVE; they are deceased, THEY SHALL NOT RISE; Therefore hast thou visited and destroyed them and made all their memory to perish.

Prov. 21:16 The man that wandereth out of the way of understanding shall remain in the congregation of the DEAD.

Jer. 51:39,57 In their heat I will make their feasts, and I will make them drunken, that they may rejoice and sleep a perpetual sleep, and not awake, saith the LORD. * * * And I will make drunk her princes, and her wise men, her captains, and her rulers, and her mighty men; they shall sleep a perpetual sleep, and not awake, saith the king, whose name is the LORD of hosts.

Obadiah 1:16 For as ye have drunk upon my holy mountain, so shall all the heathen drink continually, yea, they shall drink and they shall swallow down, and they shall be as though they had not been.

Rom. 2:12 For as many as have sinned without law shall perish without law; and as many as have sinned in the law shall be judged by the law.

If these testimonies are accepted a question that has baffled the understanding of many will be solved. What will become of the heathen? has troubled those who have received from their forefathers and their theological "fathers" the tradition that every human being is an immortal soul, that must either bask in bliss or writhe in pain to all eternity. Consistency will not allow the belief that the thousands of wretched beings in human form go to heaven; for that would make the supposed future abode of the saints unfit for decent people. To preserve them in torture, on the other hand, would be no more just and reasonable than to do the same with the beasts of the field. How can you, dear reader, believe that the savage is possessed of God's holy nature? which he is if he has an immortal soul. To reason with the belief that every human being once alive is always alive is to be driven to the conclusion that the vast majority of the human family is to be preserved in misery, and thus perpetuate a monstrous evil in God's fair universe. It can never be harmonized with the wisdom, goodness and power of God.

Accept the testimony, then, both of Scripture and reason, that those who have lived the life of mere animals also die the death of the beasts of the field and all is clear.

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Acts 24:15 And have hope towards God, which they themselves also allow, that there shall be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and the unjust.

II Cor. 5:10 For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ; that everyone may receive the things in body according to that he hath done, whether it be good or bad.

Rom. 6:23 For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.

Ezek. I8:4 Behold all souls are mine; as the soul of the father, so also the soul of the son is mine: the soul that sinneth, IT SHALL DIE.

Prov. 16:25 There is a way that seemeth right unto a man; but the end thereof are the ways of death.

Psa. 37:10,20 For yet a little while and the wicked shall not be: yea, thou shalt diligently consider his place and it shall not be. * * * But the wicked shall perish, and the enemies of the LORD shall be as the fat of lambs; they shall consume; into smoke shall they consume away.

Mal. 4:1,3 For, behold, the day cometh that shall burn as an oven; and all the proud, yea, and all that do wickedly shall be stubble; and the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the Lord of hosts, that it shall leaves them neither root nor branch. * * * And ye shall tread down the wicked; for they shall be ashes under the soles of your feet.

Matt. 13:40 As therefore the tares are gathered and burned in the tire; so shall it be in the end of this world.

Matt. 3:12 Whose fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly purge his floor and gather his wheat into the garner; but he will bum up the chaff with unquenchable fire.

II Thes. 1:7-9 And to you who are troubled rest with us, when the Lord Jesus shall be revealed from heaven, with his mighty angels, in flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ: who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power.

Now, a great many people will, when they are confronted with testimonies to prove that man is mortal, that he dies and is unconscious, and that the wicked are destroyed, proceed to theorize that such testimonies refer to the body only – not to the soul or real man. But, reader, can you satisfy yourself in the belief that God has taken so much pains to tell us that the body, as a mere house in which the man resides, dies? that when the Scriptures speak of the dead knowing "not any thing" it is simply the body that is unconscious, while the real man continues alive and conscious? Can you be fully persuaded that when it is said the enemies of the Lord shall be consumed like the fats of lambs and burns up root and branch it means that it is the body only that is consumed and destroyed, while the man, the responsible man, is not? Such a position would place the punishment upon that which, according to the theory held, is in no way responsible, while the responsible man would be exempt. If the soul is the man separate from the body, and the body is not the thinking part of man, why should it be said that the body becomes unconscious? Is it not that which is conscious when it is alive that becomes unconscious when dead? Is it not that which is responsible for sins committed that suffers destruction as punishment? It is the man, which is a being of bodily form, made and kept alive by the Spirit of God, which gives life to all living beings, that dies, becomes unconscious in death, is raised from the dead, judged according to his deeds, given eternal life if worthy, punished with eternal death – the opposite of eternal life – if unworthy.

You will, however, ask, What is the soul? Why is it that it is claimed that the soul is immortal? And so we will briefly deal with the question of the soul.

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This proposition gives the primary meaning of soul as used in the Bible; but the word is also used for life and mind, and it is applied to animals as well as to man.

We quote the following from the Emphatic Diaglott:
"The Hebrew word nephesh, of the Old Testament, occurs about 700 times, and is rendered soul 471 times, life and living about 150 times; and the same word is also rendered a man, a person, self, they, me, him, anyone, breath, heart, mind, appetite, the body (dead or alive), lust, creature, and even a beast; for it is 28 times applied to beasts and to every creeping thing. The Greek word psuche of the New Testament corresponds with nephesh of the Old. It occurs 105 times, and is rendered soul 50 times and life 40 times. The same word is also rendered mind, us, you, heart, heartily, and is twice applied to the beasts that perish. Psuchicas, an adjective derived from psuche, occurs 6 times, and is translated natural and sensual; it is properly translated animal in modem translations. Perhaps it may be worthy of notice that in all the 700 times which nephesh occurs, and the 105 times of psuche, not once is the word immortal or immortality or deathless or never-dying found ,in connection as qualifying the term.


Num. 31:28 And levy a tribute unto the Lord of the men of war which went out to battle; one soul of five hundred, of the persons, and of the beeves, and of the asses and of the sheep.

Gen. 1:20 (The very first place where the word nephesh, the word rendered soul occurs) And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life (nephesh, soul, see margin), and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.

Gen. 1:30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth wherein there is life (margin living soul) I have given every green herb for meat.

Gen. 2:19 And Adam called (named) every living creature (Hebrew nephesh, soul).

Gen. 9:10 And I will establish my covenant with every living creature (Hebrew nephesh, soul) that is with you of fowl, of cattle, and of every beast of the earth with you. See also verses 15, 16.

Job l2:10 In whose hand is the soul of every living thing and the breath of all mankind.


Josh. 10:28 And that day Joshua took Makkedah, and smote it with the edge of the sword; and the king thereof he utterly destroyed, them, and all the souls that were therein. See also verses 30, 32, 35, 37, 39.

Judges 16:16 And it came to pass, when she pressed him daily with her words and urged him, so that his soul was vexed unto death.

Job 7:15 So that my soul chooseth strangling and death rather than my life.

Psa. 33:19 To deliver their soul from death and to keep them alive in famine.

Psa. 78:50 He made a way to his anger; he spared not their soul from death.

Isa. 53:12 Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong because he hath poured out his soul unto death.

Ezek. 13:10 And will ye pollute me among my people for handfuls of barley and for pieces of bread, to slay the souls that should not die, and to save the souls alive that should not live.

Ezek. 18:4 Behold, all souls are mine; as the soul of the father, so also the soul of the son is mine; the soul that sinneth, it shall die.

Verse 27 Again, when the wicked man turneth away from his wickedness that he hath committed, and doeth that which is lawful and right, he shall save his soul alive.

Matt. 20:38 My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death.

Jas. 5:20 Let him know, that he which converteth the sinner from the error of his way shall save a soul from death.

Rev. 16:3 And the second angel poured out his vial upon the sea; and it became as the blood of a dead man; and every living soul died in the sea.


Psa. 35:17 Lord how long wilt thou look on? Rescue my soul from their destructions.

Psa. 63:0 But those that seek my soul to destroy it shall go into the lower parts of the earth.

Acts 3:23 And it shall come to pass, that every soul which will not hear that prophet shall be destroyed from among the people.

In the following testimonies the Hebrew word nephesh and the Greek word psuche, which are so frequently rendered soul, are rendered life. Substitute the word soul for life in the reading of these and it will be seen that, instead of soul being indestructible and immortal, it is the opposite.

Exo. 4:10 Go, return into Egypt; for all the men are dead which sought thy life.

Matt. 2:20 For they are dead which sought the young Child's life.

Mark 3:4 Is it lawful to do good on the Sabbath days, or to do evil? to save life, or to kill (life or soul)?

Rev. 8:9 And the third part of the creatures which were in the sea, and had life (soul) died.

Rev. 12:11 And they overcome him by the blood of the Lamb, and by the word of their testimony; and they loved not their lives (souls) unto the death.


Job 33:18 He keepeth back his soul from the pit (grave) and his life from perishing by the sword. Also verses 28, 30.

Psa. 16:10 For thou wilt not leave my soul in hell (the grave), neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption.

Psa. 30:3 0 Lord, thou has brought up my soul from the grave; thou hast kept me alive that I should not go down to the pit. The pit and the "grave" are here synonymous; also "my soul, and "me" and "I"

Isa. 49:15 But God will redeem my soul from the power of the grave; for he shall receive me.

Isa. 89:4S What man is he that liveth and shall not see death? Shall he deliver his soul (himself) from the hand of the grave?

Isa. 38:17,18 Thou hast in love to my soul delivered it from the pit of corruption; * * * for the grave cannot praise thee, death cannot celebrate thee; they that go down to the pit cannot hope for thy truth.

Act 2:31 He seeing this before spake of the resurrection of Christ, that his soul was not left in hell (grave), ... same word as is translated grave in I Cor. 15:55.

Now, dear reader, by these testimonies you will see that the various ways in which the soul is spoken of in the Bible leaves no room whatever for the doctrine of the immortality of the soul. Think a moment. Is it not strange that in all the instances in which the word soul occurs it is never once spoken of as immortal? To find the phrase "immortal soul" you must close your Bible and open theological books; and these will direct you to the words of heathen philosophers as the authors from whom the phrase came. You do not hear popular teachers in our times speaking of souls dying, being destroyed going to the grave and coming out of ,the grave. They say the soul is "never dying", immortal, does not go to the grave and is not delivered from the grave. Take, for instance, the word life in Matt. 6:25, where the Greek word is psuche – the word which in other places is rendered soul – and try if you can make it suit the doctrine of the immortality of the soul. It would read, "Take no thought for your (immortal) "soul".

Try it again in Matt. 16:25,26, of which Dr. Adam Clarks says: "On what authority many have translated the word psuche in the 25th verse "life" and in this 26th verse "soul" I know not." If, as is claimed, that the word psuche means "immortal soul", then these verses would read, "For whosoever will save his immortal soul shall lose it; and whosoever will lose his immortal soul for my sake shall find it" etc.

Ponder over the following questions and see the folly of the doctrine of the immortality of the soul:

Since the Bible speaks of a living man (Gen. 2:7) as a living soul, and a dead man as a dead soul, (Num. 6:6; 9:10) (the word body in these verses is from nephesh), and since Paul defines a living soul to be a natural body (I Cor. 15:44,45), how can you speak of the soul as immortal, deathless?

The phrase 'living soul" occurs fourteen times in the original Scriptures and twice it is applied to man (Gen. 2:7:I Cor. 15:44); once to fish (Rev. 16:3) and eleven times to the beasts of the field (Gen. 1:20,21,24,30; 2:19; 9:10,12,15,16; Lev. 11:10,46). In view of this can you persuade yourself that living soul means "immortal soul"?

If the word soul signifies immortality, why is the word immortal added to it by those who use the phrase "immortal soul"? This is the same as if they were to say immortal immortality.

If to have a soul is to have immortality, then the beasts have immortality; for they are said to have souls, as you will see by the verses already quoted and the following:

Num. 31:28; Job 12:10; Prov. 12:10. (The word life is from nephesh, soul.)

Popular teachers say the soul is immortal. They cannot give you their description of man without using the words "immortal soul" and yet Moses, the prophets, Christ and His apostles never used the words in all the nearly one thousand times they use the word soul. Immortal was never a prefix to the word soul with them.

The Bible speaks of soul being born (Exo 12:19);of souls dying Rev. 16:3); of souls being in the grave (Psa. 89:48); of souls being raised from the dead (Acts 2:31); of souls having blood (Jer. 2:34); of souls breathing (Josh. 11:11); of souls being slain with the sword (Josh, 10:28,29); of souls eating and drinking (Lev. 7:20); Isa. 32:6); of souls committing carnal abominations (Lev. 18:29); of souls expiring (Job 31:39 margin); of souls being burnt with fire (Isa. 47:14 margin); of souls fasting (Psa. 35:13); of souls having flesh (Lev. 17:15,16); of souls having hands (Lev. 22:6); of souls having mouths (Psa. 103:2,5); of souls having lips (Lev. 5:4); of beasts having souls (Deut. 12:23, Hebrew nephesho; of souls being put in fetters of iron (Psa. 105:18, margin); and of fish having souls (Rev. 8:9, Greek psuche, soul). In view of such Bible descriptions of souls, how is it possible, nay, is it not preposterous, to talk about souls being immortal and immaterial?

Dear reader, you may think that all "great and good men" are against us upon this question, and this may have weight on your mind, as it has with many; and they say, "O well, if great men believe in the immortality of the soul it is no use for us to deny it, for they ought to know." This is by no means a proper view to take. We must allow God to be true though all may thereby be proved liars. However, to show you that all "great men" have not believed in the doctrine and that some have protested against it, I will reproduce a list of quotations from the "Declaration".

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Herodotus, the oldest historian, writes as follows:
The Egyptians say that Ceres (the goddess of corn). and Bacchus (the god of wine), hold the chief sway in the infernal regions; and the Egyptians also were the first who asserted the doctrine that the soul of man is immortal. – Herodotus, page 144.

Mosheim says:
It's first promoters argued from that known doctrine of the Platonic school, which was also accepted by Origen. and his disciples, that the divine nature was diffused through all human souls. Ecclesiastical History, Volume 1, page 80.

Justin Martyr (150 A. D.) said:
For if you have conversed with some that are indeed called Christians and do not maintain these opinions but even dare to blaspheme the God of Abraham and the God Isaac and the God of Jacob, and say that there is no resurrection of the dead, but that the souls, as soon as they leave the body, are received up into heaven, TAKE CARE THAT YOU DO NOT LOOK UPON THESE. But I, and all those Christians that are really orthodox in every respect, do know that there will be a resurrection of the body and a thousand years in Jerusalem, when it is built again and adorned and enlarged, as Ezekiel and Esaias and the rest of the prophets declare. – Dialogue with Trypho, the Jew, section 80.

An extract from a canon which was passed under Leo X. by the Council of Lateran shows that the doctrine of an "immortal soul" that lives when the man is dead was supported in those days, as it Generally has been since, by the authority of creeds rather than the Word of God:
Some have dared to assert, concerning the nature of the reasonable soul, that it is mortal; we, with the approbation of the sacred council, do condemn and reprobate all such, seeing, according to the canon of Pope Clement the Fifth (not according to the Bible) the soul is immortal; and we strictly inhibit all from dogmatizing otherwise; and we decree that all who adhere to the like erroneous assertions shall be shunned as heretics. – Caranga, page 412, 1081.

Martin Luther, ironically responding to the decree of the Council of the Lateran held during the pontificate of Pope Leo, says:
"I permit the pope to make articles of faith for himself and his faithful – such as the soul is the substantial form of. the human body, the soul is immortal, with all those monstrous opinions to be found in the Roman dunghill of decretals." – Luther's Works, Volume 2 folio 107, Wittenberg, 1562.

In an old work printed in 1772, entitled Historical View of the Intermediate State", on page 348, when speaking of Martin Luther's. belief in relation to the state of the dead between death and resurrection, it is said he held "that they lay in a profound sleep", in which opinion he followed many of the fathers of the ancient church.

William Tyndall declares that –
In putting departed souls in heaven, hell and purgatory, you destroy the arguments wherewith Christ and Paul prove the resurrection. * * * The true faith putteth the resurrection, which we be warned to look for every hour. The heathen philosophers, denying that, did put that the souls did ever live. And the pope joineth the spiritual doctrine of Christ and the fleshly doctrine of philosophers together – things so contrary that they cannot agree. * * * And because the fleshly pope consenteth into HEATHEN DOCTRINE, therefore he corrupteth the Scriptures to establish it. * * * If the souls be in heaven, tell me why they be not in as good case as the angels be. And then what cause it there for the resurrection? This translator of the Scriptures into English suffered martyrdom in 1536.

Gibbon declares: "The doctrine of the immortality of the soul is omitted in the law of Moses." – Gibbon, Volume 1, page 530-1.

George Combs says: "No idea can be more erroneous than to suppose that man is an immortal being, on account of the substance of which he is composed." – System of Phrenology, page 595-7.

Parkhurst says: "As a noun nephesh hath been supposed to signify the spiritual part of man, or what we commonly call his soul, I must confess that I can find no passage where it hath undoubtedly this meaning." – Hebrew Lexicon.

Now we have given proof that even men highly esteemed among men deny and give good reasons for denying the theory of the souls immortality. Some, however, will turn to the word spirit, and claim that the Scripture use of this word will sustain that which they are forced to concede is not supported by the use of the word soul. So we will ask you to accompany us while we examine the subject under this heading.

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Now, reader, you may be under the impression that spirit is only applied to man in the Scriptures; and truly, if it is a word that signifies immortal entity, it ought never to apply to the beasts in any sense. If we show you testimonies in which spirit is spoken of as belonging to the beasts as well as to man, then you will see at once that it cannot have the meaning commonly attached to it.

Now there are different words in the original Scriptures that are rendered in our translation spirit. It will therefore be well for me to give these and a brief statement of the facts as to their meaning and use. To do this I will quote from the alphabetical appendix of the Emphatic Diaglott a statement whose correctness you can, with little trouble, test yourself.


"The Hebrew world ruach occurs 400 times in the Old Testament, and is rendered spirit 240 times; breath 28 times; wind 95 times; mind 6 times; and the balance in 18 different ways. The Greek word pneuma has been chosen by the inspired writers of the New Testament as the equivalent in meaning of ruach. It occurs 385 times, and is the only word rendered spirit, (with two exceptions, Matt. 14:26; Mark 6:49). Pneuma, like ruach of the Old Testament, has four significations: 1. It represents primarily the air that we breathe. 2. It denotes a being, as angels. 3. It represents an influence from a being. 4. It indicates a state of feeling. It is believed that there is not a passage where these words rendered spirit occur but what may be classified under one of these significations."

Now when it is said in Gen. 6:17, "I do bring a flood of waters upon the earth to destroy all flesh wherein is the breath (ruach, the Hebrew word often rendered spirit) or life, we see that "immortal soul" or "immortal spirit' is out of the question; for "all flesh" included the beasts of the field.

When the wise man declares of man and beasts in Ecc. 3:19, "For that which befalleth the sons of men befalleth beasts; even one thing befalleth them; as the one dieth so dieth the other; YEA THEY HAVE ALL ONE BREATH (ruach), you would certainly not read, yea they have all one "immortal spirit. So, also, when it is said in Jas. 2:26, "For as the body without the spirit (pneuma) is dead, the meaning is, as you will see by the word breath in the margin, "the body without the breath (or life) is dead. And surely this is true of all flesh wherein is the breath or spirit of life.

It was the breath of life that God breathed into man to make him a living man. Before that he was a lifeless man. When God takes away the breath of life or the spirit of life, which all creatures possess, the man becomes as lifeless as he was before he received the breath of life. Hence Solomon says in Ecc. 12:7, "Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was and the spirit shall return to God who gave it." The word rendered spirit here is the same as is rendered breath in chapter 3:19, where it says of man and beasts, yea they have all one breath (ruach).

The fact that our translators have rendered the same word (ruach) breath and spirit does not change the fact that the inspired writers used the same word. A good way for you to test whether the inspired writers believed as theologians do now – that spirit means "immortal spirit" or soul – is to read "immortal spirit" in the verses where the words rendered spirit, breath and wind occur. Try in the following:

I Kings 2:9 And Elisha said, I pray thee, let a double portion of thy spirit be upon me.

Job 9:18 He will not suffer me to take my breath (ruach).

Job 12:10 In whose hand is the soul of every living thing, and the breath of all mankind.

Job 27:3 All the while my breath is in me, and the Spirit of God is in my nostrils.

Job 33:4 The spirit of God hath made me and the breath of the Almighty hath given me life.

Eph. 4:23 Be renewed in the spirit of your mind.

Col. 2:5 For though I be absent in flesh yet am I with you in spirit.

Num. 16:22 O God, the God of the spirits of all flesh.

Num. 27:16 Let the Lord, the God of the spirits of all flesh, set a man over the congregation.

Josh. 5:1 Neither was there any spirit in them any more because of the children of Israel.

I Kings 10:4,5 When the Queen of Sheba had seen Solomon's wisdom there was no spirit in her.

Psa. 104:29,30 Thou takest away their breath (spirit of the beasts, see context) they die and return to the dust.

We say, a proud spirit, a haughty spirit, a rebellious spirit, a meek spirit, etc.; but we use the word for disposition or state of mind, and not for immortal entity. We say a horse is in good spirits or is a spirited creature; but we do not use the word as theologians do.

Understanding spirit to be used for life, we can understand the words, "Lord Jesus receive my (not me) spirit and Stephen fell asleep (Acts 7:59); and, Jesus, when he had cried with a loud voice, yielded up the ghost," spirit or life (Matt. 27:50). But Jesus died. The spirit was not Jesus; it was that which gave Him life. When He yielded up the spirit He yielded up His life and then He – Jesus Himself – died. If the spirit that He yielded up was Jesus, the Christ, then He did not die, to claim which would imperil our salvation.

When you seek the meaning of a Scripture word it is not safe to take the theological meaning; for Scripture words have been made to serve in giving expression to heathen doctrines. If you take the radical meaning of spirit as given in the dictionary you will find it accords with the Scripture use in the primary sense. The meaning given by Webster for spirit is breath. The meaning the lexicons give of the Greek and Hebrew words pneuma and ruach – the words which stand for spirit – is breath. The noun in each case is derived from a verb meaning to breathe. So when God formed man of the dust of the ground He made him alive by causing him to breathe His spirit, which all the creatures that went into the ark possessed (Gen. 7:14,15). When man dies "his breath (ruach, spirit) goeth forth, he returneth to his earth, and in that very day his thoughts perish" (Psa. 146:4). The spirit of God is everywhere – in the air that surrounds us. That portion of it which God enables us to appropriate to our use in respiration (by breathing) is called breath; and as it is by this process of breathing that we live, it is called the breath or spirit of life. It is the same with all creatures; for, as we have seen, "they – man and beasts – have all one breath" (Ecc. 3:19). So our breath or spirit of life comes from God to make and keep us alive; and when we die the breath or spirit of life returns to God who gave it. The giving of it makes us alive, and the taking away of it leaves us dead.

With these facts before you, that man is mortal, and that the soul and spirit of man are never spoken in the Scriptures as immortal, we may now ask you to listen to the use of the word immortal, so that you may more fully see that immortality is in no sense man's present possession, and that therefore "immortal soul" and "immortal spirit" are invented phrases – not scriptural.

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Now immortality is spoken of in the Scriptures in various ways. We have already shown (Proposition 11.) that it is a gift of God to the righteous only; but let us now look at the use the Bible makes of the word. Following are all the instances where it is found:

I Tim. 1:17 Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, be honor and glory for ever and ever.

I Tim. 6:15,16 Which in his times he shall show, who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords; who only hath immortality, dwelling in the light, etc.

II Tim. 1:10 But is now made manifest by the appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and IMMORTALITY to light through the gospel.

Rom. 2:6,7 Who will render to every man according to his deeds: tothem who by patient continuance in well doing seek for glory, honor and immortality, eternal life.

I Cor. 15:53,54 For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must PUT ON IMMORTALITY. So when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have PUT ON IMMORTALITY, then shall be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death is swallowed up in victory.

Now, dear reader, look at this without prejudice, and see, first, that the word immortal or immortality is never applied to man in his present state. Then consider that in the first verse quoted immortality is God's nature. Do you think God would bestow His divine and holy and indestructible nature upon wicked and depraved beings? Do you think it is reasonable to believe that beings possessed of God's holy nature could be tempted to sin and that God would torture eternally millions of beings possessed of His own divine nature? Is not such a thought revolting to a mind that regards God as being holy, just, wise and good, His nature being the very essence of these attributes?

But now look at the four verses where the word is used in relation to man. First, immortality is brought to light through the gospel. Second, it is that which we must seek for by well doing. Third, we shall put it on at the resurrection. Fourth, when it is put on death is swallowed up in victory. Thus you will see that such a boon as to be made partakers of the divine nature is only for those who prove themselves worthy of it. (Remember that you never read in the Bible the words immortal soul" or "immortal spirit"). The same is true of eternal life, as we shall next proceed to show.

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I John 2:15 And this is the promise that he hath promised us EVEN ETERNAL LIFE, through Jesus Christ.

II Tim. 1:1 Paul an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, according to the PROMISE OF LIFE which is in Christ Jesus.

Tit. 1:2 IN HOPE OF ETERNAL LIFE, which God that cannot lie promised before the world began.

Tit. 3:7 That being Justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to THE HOPE' OF ETERNAL LIFE.

Rom. 2:6,7 Who will render to every man according to his deeds, to them who by patient continuance in well doing seek for glory, honor and immortality. eternal life.

Col. 3:3,4 For ye are dead, and your life is hid with Christ in God; and when Christ who is our life shall appear, THEN shall ye also appear with him in glory.

John 5:28,29 All that are in the graves shall hear his voice and shall come forth; they that have done good unto the resurrection of life.

Gal. 6:8 He that soweth to the spirit shall of the spirit reap life everlasting

Luke 20:35,36 They which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world, and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage; neither can they die any more; for they are equal unto the angels; and are the children of God, being the children of the resurrection.

Your mind will possibly run to a few texts which say, "He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life" (John 3:36). Many quote these to prove the immortality of the soul; but you will notice that it is added, "He that hath not the Son, hath not life" (I John 5:12). If the first means, He that hath the Son hath an immortal soul or spirit, then the last part means, He that hath not the Son hath not an immortal soul or spirit. Eternal life, therefore, whenever it is possessed, is possessed by the righteous only. Now if you will compare scripture with scripture you will see what is meant by the words hath life. Think of this: "He that believeth on the Son hath the witness (not the thing witnessed) in himself; he that believeth not God hath made him a liar; because he believeth not the record that God gave of his Son. And this is the record that God hath given to us eternal life and this life is in HIS SON" (I John 5:10,11) – not in us yet. We have it in the Son so long as we have Him in our minds and hearts; but the time when we shall have it in ourselves is seen in the words. "Ye are dead, and your life is hid with Christ in God. When Christ, who is our life SHALL APPEAR, THEN shall, ye also appear with him in glory" (Col. 3:3,4).

You will be told by theologians that eternal life means eternal happiness – not eternal living existence. It is true that all who shall be accounted worthy of eternal living existence will, as a necessary result, enjoy eternal happiness. Hence by obtaining the former we enjoy the latter: but "eternal life" means to live without end; and "eternal happiness" means to be always happy.

Now if the wicked live without end, it matters not where they live; they have eternal life. If you ask theologians, Will the life of the wicked ever end? they will answer you, No; they will live in torment as long as the righteous live in happiness; the difference is only in the place and state where they live. So that you will see there is in this a denial of the gospel of eternal life, which says, For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him might not, perish, but have everlasting life (John 3:10). There is a "strait gate" and a "narrow way" that "leadeth to life" – life is at the farther end; not at this end, in us – and there is a "broad gate" and a "wide way" that leadeth to destruction – not to life in misery.

This will prepare your mind for the reception of the Scripture teaching concerning the destiny of the wicked, which we will now consider.

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Job 20:5-8 The triumphing of the wicked is short, and the joy of the hypocrite but for a moment. He shall perish for ever like his own dung; they which have seen him shall say, Where is he? He shall fly away as a dream, and shall not be found, yea, he shall be chased away as a vision of the night.

Psa. 37:38 But the transgressors shall be destroyed together; the end of the wicked shall be cut off.

Psa. 37:10 For yet a little while and the wicked shall not be; yea, thou shalt diligently consider his place, and it shall not be.

Psa. 37:20 But the wicked shall perish, and the enemies of the LORD shall be as the fat of lambs; their shall consume; INTO SMOKE SHALL THEY CONSUME AWAY.

Psa. 145:20 The LORD preserveth all them that love him; but all the wicked will he destroy.

Psa. 104:35 Let the sinners be consumed out of the earth, and let the wicked be no more.

II Pet. 2:12 But these, as natural brute beasts, made to be taken and destroyed, speak evil of the things that they understand not; and shall utterly perish in their own corruption.

II Thes. 1:9,10 Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of his power.

Those who cling to the terrible theory that God will preserve the wicked eternally in torment try to evade these plain statements of Scripture by saying that the meaning is not literal destruction; but that the word destroy must be understood in the sense we speak of a man who has become a reprobate – his character is destroyed, he is ruined. You will see that this is not reasonable, because it is the wicked who are to be destroyed. They are already ruined in the sense referred to, from the fact that they are the wicked; and it is the destruction of these that the Scriptures are speaking of.

Then, again, there is a play upon the words "from among the people" (Acts 3:23), as if they did not mean absolute destruction, but banishment to another region. A comparison of scripture with scripture will show you how unreasonable this is. Notice the application of the word "destroyed" in these texts: "And every living substance was DESTROYED which was upon the face of the ground, both man and cattle and the creeping things, and the fowl of heaven; and they were DESTROYED FROM THE EARTH" Gen. 7:23). If "destroyed" here as applied to man means "banished to another region," then it must mean the same for all the creatures named, for the one word is made to serve for what happened to them all.

From force of education you will now possibly wonder, in view of the foregoing, what is the meaning of 'hell in the Bible. For if the wicked are to be destroyed, such a place as have been taught to believe to be will not be needed. If the wicked are not to be preserved alive the popular hell will be of no use. So let us examine this subject next.

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The use the inspired writers make of the Hebrew and Greek words rendered in our translation '`hell" must be allowed to determine what they mean by these words. You must remember that in the Greek there are two words in the original Scriptures – hades and Gehenna that are translated by the one word hell. In the Old Testament the Hebrew word answering to hades is sheol. Now this word is often rendered grave; and it's use in such cases shows that the prophets never understood it to mean a place of torment for "disembodied spirits".


Gen. 37:35 He (Jacob) refused to be comforted; and he said, For I will go down into the grave (sheol) unto my son mourning.

Gen. 42:38 If mischief befall him in the way by which ye go, then shall ye bring down my gray hairs with sorrow to the grave (sheol).

I Sam. 2:6 The LORD killeth and maketh alive; he bringeth down to the grave (sheol) and bringeth up,

I Kings 2:6 Do therefore according to thy wisdom, and let not his hoary head go down to the grave (sheol) in peace.

Job 14:13 O that thou wouldest hide me in the grave (sheol), that wouldest keep me secret until thy wrath be past.

Job 17:13 If I wait the grave (sheol) is mine house; I have made my bed in the darkness.

Psa. 30:3 0 LORD, thou has brought up my soul from the grave (sheol); thou has kept me alive that I should not go down to the pit.

Psa. 49:14 Like sheep they are laid in the grave (sheol), death shall feed on them.

Hos. 13:14 I will ransom them from the power of the grave (sheol); 0 grave I will be thy destruction. (Compare with I Cor. 15:55).

Ecc. 9:10 There is no work nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom, in the grave (sheol), whither thou goest.

Psa. 31:17 Let them be silent in the grave (sheol).

Ezek. 32:27 And they shall not lie with the mighty that are fallen of the uncircumcised, which are gone down to hell (sheol) with their weapons of war; and they have laid their swords under their heads. (Hell here is shown to be the grave, by the fact that the mighty lie there with their swords under their heads, it being a custom to bury warriors with their swords under their heads).

Psa. 16:10 For thou wilt not leave my soul in hell (sheol), neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption. (Peter uses this to prove that Christ was raised from the grave. – Acts 2:27,30-32).

From these testimonies it is clear that the inspired writers had no idea of a place of eternal torment being represented by the word sheol. Just substitute "the place of eternal torment" for the word sheol in these texts and you will see how absurd is the theory of modern theology. It would make Jacob say, "I refuse to be comforted; and I will go down to the place of eternal torment to my son mourning." It would make David say, :Let not his hoary head go down to the place of eternal torment in peace." as though it were possible to go to such a place in peace. It would make Job say, "O that thou wouldest hide me in the place of eternal torment until thy wrath be past, which would be praying to be taken from bad to worse. It would make David and Peter say that Christ went to the place of torment but was not left there. Now if you keep in view that the final end of the wicked is to be punished with eternal death – to be cast into the darkness of death and the grave – then you will easily understand the use of the word sheol when the translators have rendered it "hell"; such, for instance, as "The wicked shall be turned into hell (sheol), ,and all nations that forget God (Psa. 9:17).

The word that the writers of the New Testament used as meaning the same as sheol is hades.


The Septuagint (the Greek translation of the Old Testament) uses the word hades as the equivalent of sheol. Therefore the texts quoted above apply to the use of the word hades in the Greek in the same way as they do to sheol in the Hebrew. The word hades only occurs eleven times in the New Testament. As to it's meaning and whether or not it is properly translated by the word hell we submit the following:

"The Hebrew word sheol is translated HELL, properly as a general thing, if intended to mean the same as the old Saxon word hell, the covered receptacle of all the dead, where the good and bad repose together in a state of UNCONSCIOUSNESS; but very improperly and SHAMEFULLY IF intended to be a symbol of the 'orthodox' and traditionary hell as a place of conscious torment for the wicked only. But we, without the slightest reservation, condemn the translators; for they have evidently endeavored to observe the true sense of the word Sheol, and to uphold the traditional meaning of hell at the expense of truth and uniformity. Had sheol been uniformly translated pit or grave or the state of the dead, or even the mansions of the dead, no such absurd idea as that of a place of conscious torment could ever have been associated with it." Bible versus Tradition, page 188.

"Hades means literally that which is darkness. A careful examination will lead to the conclusion that no sanction to the intermediate state is afforded by these passages where hades occurs; but they denote the grave, both of the righteous and wicked. Dr. Kitto, Cyclopedia.

"The original word hades, from a, not, and idien, to see – the invisible receptacle or mansion of the dead, answering to sheol in Hebrew. The word hell, used in the common translations conveys now an improper meaning of the original word, because hell is only used to signify the place of the damned. But as the word hell comes from the Anglo-Saxon helan, to cover or hide, hence the tiling or slating of a house in some parts of England (particularly Cornwall): heIing to this day, and the covers of books (in Lancashire), by the same name; so the literal import of the original word hades: was formerly well expressed by it. – Dr. Adam Clarke, Commentary.

"The gates of hades may always allusive to the form of the Jewish sepulchres, which were large caves with a narrow mouth or entrance, many of which are found in Judea." – Parkhurst, Lexicon.

Following are the passages where the word hades occurs in · the New Testament:

Matt. 11:23 And thou Capernaum which art exalted unto heaven, shaIt be brought down to hell (hades).

Upon this Dr. Adam Clarke says:

This prediction of our Lord was literally fulfilled; for in the wars with the Romans and the Jews these cities were totally destroyed, so that no traces are now found of Bethsaida, Chorazin or Capernaum Commentary.

To be brought down to hell, the grave, was therefore to be destroyed.

Matt. 16:18 And I say unto thee, thou art Peter, and upon this rock will I build my church; and the gates of hell (hades, the grave) shall not prevail against it.

"The gates of hades," says Parkhurst, may always be allusive to the form of Jewish sepulchres."

The gates of the grave will not prevail, because the church will be delivered, and exclaim: "O grave (hades), where is thy victory?" (I Cor. 15:55).

Luke 10:15 Same as already referred to in Matt. 11:23.

Luke 16:23 And in hell (hades) he lifted up his eyes.

Acts 2:27,31 Because thou wilt not leave my soul in hell (hades), neither wilt thou suffer thine Holy One to see corruption.

I Cor. 15:55 O death, where is thy sting? O grave (hades), where is thy victory?

Rev. 1:18 I am he that liveth, and was dead; and. behold, I am alive for evermore, amen; and have the keys of hell (hades) and of death.

Rev. 6:8 And I looked and behold, a pale horse; and his name that sat upon him was Death. and Hell (hades) followed with him.

Rev. 20:13,14 And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell (hades) delivered up the dead which were in them; and they were judged every man according to their works. And death and hell (hades) were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death.

These passages will all be clear to you as applying to the grave, except, perhaps, one – that in which the rich man is said to lift up his eyes in hell (hades). We purpose devoting a chapter to this further along, but will say here, that the parable of the rich man and Lazarus was addressed to the Pharisees (Luke 16:14), who, having received traditions which made the Word of God of none effect, had become believers in the heathen dogma of the conscious existence of disembodied souls. To find a receptacle for these after death they invented a place where good and bad souls were preserved awaiting the judgment day; and to that place they gave the name of hades. In this parable our Lord used their theory to represent the national calamity shortly to come upon them in the destruction of Jerusalem and their torment at the hands of the Roman and other nations among whom they would suffer. The fact that the Saviour used their theory in parable no more commits Him to that theory than His use of the word Beelzebub (Matt. 19.:9.7) committed Him to the pagan fiction of the god of the fly. It must be remembered that our Lord made no attempt to instruct the Pharisees and show them the fallacy of the heathen dogmas they had espoused. He knew they were self-righteous, and ironically said to them, I am not come to call the righteous" (Matt. 9:13). It is said that, "without a, parable spake he not unto them" (Matt. 13:34); and the reason He gave for this was, "because it is given to you" (the disciples) "to know the mysteries of the kingdom of heaven, but to them it is not" (Matt. 13:11).


Gehenna, the other word translated hell in the New Testament, has an entirely different meaning from hades, and never ought to have been translated by the word hell. The following from the Emphatic Diaglott is a good explanation:

"Gehenna, the Greek word translated hell in the common version occurs 19. times. It is the Grecian mode of spelling the Hebrew words which are translated "The Valley of Hinnom" This valley was also called Tophet, a detestation, an abomination. Into this place were cast all kinds of filth, with the carcasses of beasts and the unburied bodies of criminals who had been executed. Continual fires were kept to consume these. Sennacherib's army of 185,000 were slain here in one night. Here children were burnt to death in sacrifice to Moloch. Gehenna, then, as occurring in the New Testament, symbolizes death and utter destruction, but in no place symbolizes a place of eternal torment."

The Jews having come to look upon Gehenna as a place of horror, it was associated by our Lord with the destiny which awaited those who shall be the victims of the wrath of God in the day of just retribution. The testimonies in which the word is used indicate that, not only was Gehenna a place of judicial punishment in the past, but in that same place will the righteous judgments of God be poured upon the transgressors. The worms that preyed upon the carcasses in the past have long since devoured them; the unquenchable fire that burned has devoured it's victims. So when the worms shall again prey upon the bodies of the wicked and the fire burn, destruction will be the inevitable result. You will see, dear reader, that the meaning of the words "The worm dieth not and the fire is not quenched" is not that the bodies upon which the worms prey are preserved alive – not that they will burn and yet never burn. The fact that worms are represented as preying is proof that their victims have been put to death and that to be totally devoured is the certain end; and the fact that the fire is not quenched is proof, not that it's victims will be preserved, but that they will be devoured.

Following are the passages where the word hell in the common version is from Gehenna:

Matt. 5:22 But I say, That whosoever is angry with his brother without a cause shall be in danger of the Judgment; and whosoever shah say to his brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council; but whosoever shall say, Thou fool. shall be in danger of hell (Gehenna) fire.

Matt. 5:29 And if thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out and cast it from thee; for it is profitable for thee that one of thy members should perish, and not that thy whole body should be east into hell (Gehenna).

Matt. 10:28 And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul; but rather fear him which is able to destroy both body and soul in hell (Gehenna).

Matt. 18:9 And if thine eye offend thee, pluck it out and cast it from thee: it is better for thee to enter into life with one eye rather than having two eyes to be cast into hell (Gehenna) fire.

Matt. 23:15 Woe unto you scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for ye compass sea and land to make one proselyte, and when he is made, ye make him twofold more the child of hell (Gehenna) than yourselves.

Matt. 23:33 Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell (Gehenna)?

Mark 9:43,45,47; Luke 12:5. These are the same as given from Matthew.

Jas. 3:6 And the tongue is a fire, a world of iniquity: so is the tongue among our members, that it defileth the whole body, and setteth on fire the course of nature; and it is set on fire of hell (Gehenna).

Now you will see from these testimonies that no support is given by them to the theory of eternal preservation in hell fire as popularly believed. The Jews knew that to be "in danger of Gehenna" was to be in danger of an ignoble death, a devouring of worms or a consuming of fire in the detested valley of Gehenna, instead of even after death being allowed a burial. They were assured that God would destroy the wicked, both soul and body in Gehenna; and that it was better for them to enter into life maimed than to suffer death and the destruction of Gehenna. If you notice the use of the word life in some of the quotations you will see that it is not a question of their going to live in a place of happiness on the one hand and to live in a place of misery on the other. It is a question of "entering into life" or of being destroyed.

Dr. Parkhurst remarks on Mark 9:43: "Our Lord seems to allude to the worms which continually preyed on dead carcasses that were cast into the valley of Hinnom (Gehenna), and to the perpetual fire kept up to consume them; a place of abominable filthiness and pollution. Greek Lexicon.

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Now, dear reader, we come to the question of the devil – a question that you may think of trivial importance, but which we must insist is of great importance. It is very important that we believe no doctrine that will dishonor and blaspheme God. If there is such a personal monster as is popularly believed in – one that is immortal and possessed of power to tempt weak humanity in all parts of the world at the same time, and that has the power of an endless life to continue his rebellion against God – the question is, Where did such a being come from? Did God create him? Did God give him immortality – His own nature and the nature we are commanded to seek for by well-doing? Did God give him power to be everywhere present performing his wicked work? Is it God's purpose to allow such a monster of wickedness to live eternally in open rebellion against Him? If so, why so? Can you believe these things without dishonoring God, who is wise, just, all-powerful and good?

If we believe that the devil is immortal and has eternal life, how can we believe that "the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life" (Rom. 6:23)? If we believe that the devil is to be an eternal enemy of God and man, how can we believe that Christ through death will "destroy him that hath the power of death, that is the devil" (Heb. 2:14)? and that Christ will destroy the last enemy (I Cor. 15:26)? Is not man naturally weak enough in resisting the enticements of the carnal mind? Why should God create, or even allow to exist, a being possessed of such a tempting power over man who is already so weak? Why should there be a "hell" larger and more thickly populated than "heaven," and why should there be a devil more powerful for mischief than God is for good? Is it not blasphemy against God to believe such things?


Now, the word devil, like that of "hell", is quite deceiving in the manner of it's use in the New Testament, for it is made to represent two different words in the original Scriptures. These Words are, in the Greek, daimon and diabolos. The first is a word which the heathen applied to supposed departed spirits. With them, when a person was afflicted with a disease of any kind, especially disease affecting the mind, it was a disembodied spirit, or, as it would now be called by their disciples, an "immortal soul", had entered the body of the person to punish him. To cure the disease was to cast out the demon, spirit or soul. Thus, if one was affected with seven different diseases and was healed it was the casting out of seven spirits or immortal souls. Religious people who have given heed to doctrines of devils (demons) still hold the heathen dogma of disembodied spirits, but they have abandoned the ancient theory of transmigration. The language of Scriptures is the language of the times in which they were written; but it does not commit our Lord and His apostles to the heathen theory, any more than our use of the word lunatic commits us to the belief that an insane person has been 'moonstruck', or that our use of erysipelas means that we believe in "St. Anthony's fire".

The following from Yate's "History of Egypt, which we quote from Diabolism, will illustrate how the use of words and phrases may mean one thing to a heathen and another thing to one who has escaped the darkness of heathenism:

"It would seem that the same diseases prevailed then in Syria and Egypt as now. and the various practices adopted by the people concerning them have very little changed during a period of nearly two thousand years. Nothing is more common in the present day in the East than to be told that a person has a devil or is possessed of a devil; and the expression is applied more or less to every complaint. I had occasion to notice this immediately on my arrival in the country.

"I have known the Rev. Mr. Wolff ridiculed for stating that one evening when he was passing between Jerusalem and Cairo he east out a devil in the wilderness; but I can only suppose he used the expression in the sense alluded to, and that he merely employed the native idiom. I have often been applied to myself in Syria and other parts to east out a devil; by which I merely understood that I was to cure the bodily ailments of the individuals – not that I was expected to perform a miracle on the occasion, further than that the cure of every disease is ascribed by the natives to talismanic influence.

The work of the Saviour and His apostles in this particular was the miraculous cure of disease, the account being given in the idiom of the times. The heathen and those who believed their doctrines of demons took a heathen view of the matter; just as a religious heathen in our day would look upon a ease of erysipelas as a fire from St. Anthony, while a rational mind would know better.


The word which most concerns us is diabolos; because a failure to understand the meaning of this word will hinder one from comprehending the plan of salvation. Christ came to destroy the diabolos and his works; therefore a wrong view of diabolos interferes with a correct view of the mission of Christ.

The meaning of diabolos as given by Dr. Young is accuser, calumniator. The word is rendered devil in the New Testament thirty times, where it's use sustains the meaning above given. It does not stand for one supernatural being, as is commonly supposed; for in three instances it is used in the plural. In these cases, however, the translators of the common version, seeing, no doubt, that the word could not mean the supposed supernatural being, have not used the word devil. It would not do to make Paul say. "Even so must their wives be grave, not "supernatural devils". So they gave us a correct translation, which furnishes a key to the true meaning of the word. Hence it is:

I Tim. 3:11 Even so must their wives be grave, not slanderers (diaboloi).

II Tim. 3:3 Men shall be * * * without natural affection, trucebreakers, false accusers (diaboloi).

Tit. 2:3 The aged women, likewise, that they be in behavior as becometh holiness, not false accusers (diaboloi).

If they had been slanderers or false accusers they would have been devils in the sense that "devil' is used in the New Testament from diabolos.

Literally the word diabolos means that which causes to cross over. Hence that which tempts men to cross the line from right to wrong, or to sin. That which causes man to sin, as well as sin itself in all it's various phases is personified in the Scriptures in the same way that riches are called the god this world and mammon; and this principle of human nature is what tempts to do wrong. Hence it is the diabolos which causes men to cross over the line. There are what we call riches; there are what we call sins. Take the Scripture personification of these and call the first Mammon and the second Diabolos. Then we can say Mammon tempts us; Mammon is our enemy, Mammon will destroy us. And we can substitute Diabolos and say the same things. No one would be foolish enough to think mammon a supernatural, personal monster because we use the word in this personal sense. Why should not the use of the word diabolos be allowed in the same way? Obedience and sin are personified: "Know ye not that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants ye are to whom ye obey; whether of sin unto death, or of obedience unto righteousness" (Rom. 6:16)? Here are two masters represented by the pronoun his; but nobody supposes they are really two persons. Sin is either a wicked thought or act of a person, obedience is a good thought or act of a person. And it probably is because neither can exist without a person that they are personified. It was diabolos that put it into the heart of Judas to betray Christ (John 13:2); and thus he became a devil (diabolos) – John 6:70)

Now Christ came to take away the sin of the world – that is, to ultimately remove sin and all it's effects from the earth. When this is done the diabolos will be no more.


John 1:29 Behold the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world.

I John 3:5 He was manifested to take away our sins.

Rom. 8:3 God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and for sin, condemned sin in the flesh.


Heb. 2:14 Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that through death he might destroy him that hath the power of death, that is the devil (diabolos).

I John 3:8 For this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil (diabolos).

When the devil and his works are destroyed, all evil will be removed from the earth, paradise will be restored and everything will again be very good. To believe, therefore, that the devil is a supernatural being that is to live as long as God lives, and whose works in a supposed "hell" are to continue as long as "heaven" continues, is to deny the truth concerning the work of redemption through Christ.

Think not, then, that God maintains the existence of such a monster and that our temptations come from him. "Every man is tempted when he is drawn away of his own lust and enticed". (Jas. 1:14)


Satan is frequently used in the same sense as diabolos. Indeed, diabolos is the word which the Septuagint employs for the Hebrew word satan. While the word mostly means the same as diabolos, there is this difference – that satan does not always stand for an opposer of right. It is frequently rendered adversary; and the angel of the Lord that stood in the way of Balaam is called a satan. On the whole, however, what has been said under the heading of diabolos will apply to the word satan. Any person who is an opposer of right is a satan. Hence our Lord's words to the Apostle Peter, "Get thee behind me, satan"; from which no reasonable person would infer that Peter was the being superstition supposes the devil to be.

When the grand mission of Christ is completed there will be no satan, diabolos nor demon, for he must reign till he hath put all enemies under his feet; the last enemy shall be destroyed – death.

Sin, the transgression of law, made man a satan – an adversary of right. Lust conceived and brought forth sin; and sin, when completed, brought forth death. To bring forth death sin took effect in man's nature in the form of disease or mortality; disease multiplied into various forms, and these forms were by the heathen called demons. When our Redeemer brings the time when there will be no sickness or pain there will be no "demons." When our "vile body is changed and fashioned like unto his glorious body", "mortality will be swallowed up of life and there will be no more lust in our natures; hence no more diabolos or satan in us. Being free from lust, we shall not sin and therefore not become diabolos or satan. Then Christ will have fulfilled His mission in "destroying him that hath the power of death, that is the devil". There being ,no more death, no more demon, no more diabolos, no more satan, the LAST enemy will have been destroyed. Yes, DESTROYED; and then "God shall be all IN ALL". In this, dear reader, you have a prospect that exalts and honors Jehovah's name, in that it shows us that, while He has permitted man to sin and thus blight and curse the earth for a time, His wisdom, power and glory will put an end to all evil. Such a God – honoring, glorious prospect is shut out from your view by the heathenism that would perpetuate the existence of a personal, omniscient, omnipresent, immortal, fire-proof devil, with countless millions of hopeless and helpless victims.

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The Great Salvation
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